Arid More Arid Arid climates are defined by receiving less than 25.4 cm of rainfall per year, with rainfall being highly variable. However, arid landscapes are diverse in their soils, fauna, and flora. Arid landscapes account for ~1/3 of the total land area. Farming cannot usually occur without irrigation. Vegetation is scarce in these landscapes and usually consists of scattered shrubs, grasses, and small trees. Highlands More Highlands The highland climate is difficult to generalize as it occurs over a large latitudinal range, though the mean annual temperature is often lower than surrounding lowland areas. Some areas with the highland climate receive increased precipitation, while others, occurring in the rain shadow of nearby mountains may receive far less. Humid Continental More Humid Continental Defined as the snow zone under the KÓ§ppen classification system, humid continental climates are defined as having temperatures less than 0 Â°C (or -3 Â°C in the snow zone) during winter and at least 4 months with temperatures â‰¥10Â° C during summer. Most land areas that have a humid continental climate are in the northern hemisphere, typically between 40Â° and 60Â° latitude. Humid Subtropical More Humid Subtropical A humid subtropical climate is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild, chilly winters. This climate type is normally found on the eastern sides of continents between 20Â° and 35Â° north and south of the equator. This climate dominates in the southeastern United States, southeastern South America, coastal southeast South Africa, eastern Australia and eastern Asia from northern India through south China to Japan. Oceanic More Oceanic An oceanic climate (also known as a marine or maritime climate) is characterized by cool summers and cool winters, with a narrow annual temperature range and few extremes due to maritime influence. Oceanic climates lie between 35Â° and 60Â° north and south of the equator, and span much of Western Europe, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, parts of central Mexico, southeastern South American and southeastern Australia including Tasmania and New Zealand. Mediterranean More Mediterranean A Mediterranean climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers. This climatic region is normally located on the western coasts of continents, roughly between 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator. It is present in most of California in the United States, parts of western and south australia, parts of South Africa, Western and Central Asia, and Central Chile. Semi-Arid More Semi-Arid In Semi-Arid climates, like arid climates, precipitation is less than the potential evapotranspiration, usually receiving only 25-50 cm of rain per year. Typical vegetation for these climates include scrubby vegetation and grasslands. The climate of semi-arid areas are highly variable with droughts, as well as irregular episodes of above-average rainfall making water scarcity and salinity particularly insidious issues in these climates. They tend to occur near arid deserts or inland at higher elevations. Subarctic More Subartic The subarctic or Tundra climate has an annual maximum temperature â‰¤10Â°C. This climate is typically found between 50Â° and 70Â° latitude. As a result of anthropogenic climate change, this climate will shift closer to poles as the earth warms. Tropical Dry More Tropical Dry Mean monthly temperature is â‰¥18 Â°C for all 12 months of the year and with annual precipitation â‰¤ 1000 mm. All rainfall occurs during a short period, with little to no rainfall during the rest of the year. Tropical Wet More Tropical Wet Mean monthly temperature is â‰¥18 Â°C for all 12 months of the year and with annual precipitation â‰¥ 1500 mm. This category lumps together the tropical rainforest (minimum precipitation â‰¥ 60 mm per month) and tropical monsoon (annual precipitation â‰¥ 25[100-Pmin]) categories of the KÓ§ppen climate classification system.